Currency: Euro € (EUR)
Calling Code: 386
Slovenia , officially Republic of Slovenia is a
sovereign country in Central Europe , member of the European Union.
It borders Italy to the west; with the Adriatic Sea , to the
southwest; with Croatia to the south and east; with Hungary , to the
northeast; and with Austria to the north. It has a population of
2,080,908 inhabitants as of January 1, 2019. The capital and most
populous city is Ljubljana . About this sound
The present -day Slovenia was formed on 25 of June of 1991 to the independence from Yugoslavia , after a relatively short armed conflict called ten-day war (which was the first war of the dissolution of Yugoslavia), which opposed the army former Yugoslav federation. At that time, it was already the most developed country of that federation.
Culturally and historically, Slovenia gravitates towards Italy, Austria and Germany (Catholic and Protestant culture). Throughout history, Slovenia has always been part of empires, kingdoms, etc. Central Europe and has never been part of the political bodies that ruled most of the Balkans, for example. of the Eastern Roman Empire (Orthodox Church) and the Sultanate of Turkey (Islam).
In 2004 he joined the European Union. Slovenia joined the euro on January 1, 2007, and in the Schengen area, in 2004. Already in 1993 it had joined the Council of Europe and since July 2010 is part of the OECD .
Prehistory and antiquity
In ancient times the current territory of Slovenia was encompassed by the culture of the ballot boxes , later, in the iron age the Hallstatt culture developed in the region .
In the second century BC the historical sources record the existence of the Kingdom of Noricum in the Eastern Alps. This kingdom maintained friendly relations with the Romans, to whom they sold iron. This iron was, in fact, the key of the Romans to produce effective weapons, necessary in their wars against the Celts. In the year 16 BC, Noricum is associated with the Roman Empire where it preserved its autonomy in the terms of the "ius gentium". This law allowed Noricum to keep its own social organization until the fall of the Roman Empire. However, Roman culture and Romanization spread in Noricum.
The most important cities of Roman times in the area were Celeia (now Celje ), Emona ( Ljubljana ), Nauportus (Vrhnika) and Poetovio ( Ptuj ). Slovenian territory was divided between the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Italy, Noricum and Pannonia.
In the fourth century, Noricum was divided into two Roman provinces, Noricum Ripense and Noricum Mediterraneum, the latter also called Interriore Noricum. While the first of these provinces was invaded by Germanic tribes at the Fall of the Roman Empire, the second was able to maintain its social structure and, after the occupation of the Ostrogoths , declared its own independence.
Some believe that the Slavic ancestors of the current Slovenes settled in this area around the 6th century. However, there are others who argue that they descend from the native villages of the Eastern Alps.
In the year 595 the appointment is recorded, by Lombard historian Paulus Diaconus , of the first stable Slavic and Slovenian state as "Sclaborum Province", which would later be known as Carantania . In the year 623 , the Slavs were united in an alliance under a king named Samo , also known in historical sources as the Vinedorum Mark , which included the territories of Carantania. In 658 , after Samo's death, the Slavic Alliance disintegrated, but Carantania survived and maintained its independence.
In 745 , Carantania , which until then was a pagan nation, was seriously threatened militarily by the Avavans of neighboring Panonia . That is why Duke Borut requested military help from the friendly Bavarians , who were already Christianized. The Bavarians belonged to the political dominance of the King of the Franks , who was the protector of Christianity in Europe. The king of the Franks gave permission to Bavaria to help the pagan Carantania, but only on the condition that the latter accept Christianity. Duke Borut accepted the condition and with the help of the Bavarians Carantania definitely defeated the Avars. This is how Duke Borut sent his son Gorazd and his nephew Hotimir to be educated in the Christian faith in Bavaria . In the decades following the defeat of the Avars the bishop of Salzburg , Saint Virgil , sent a series of Irish monks to Carantania, highlighting Saint Modestoas apostle of the carantanios. After the death of Saint Modesto there was a brief pagan restoration because the Treaty by which Carantania had agreed to assume Christianity was violated. Thus, the Bavarian army entered the country and suppressed the pagan government. Because of this among the pagan people grew distrust of Christianity.
Thanks to the task of Duke Domitian (Domicijan), the conversion to Christianity was total. Finally, at the time of Charlemagne , in 802 the Duke Domitian died; then he would be recognized saint. By 828 the Duchy of Carantania occupied the current territory of Austria and Slovenia.
Carantania joined the kingdom of the Franks with its own law ( Consuetudo Sclavorum ) and preserved the proclamation of his knez (prince) in Slovenian until 1414 on the Prince's Stone ( knezji kamen ). Until the year 1651 the ceremony of appointment of the lord took place in the Throne of the Duke ( vojvodski stol ) and until the year 1728 in the county mansion of Klagenfurt ( Celovec ). The coronation ritual of the Carinthian ruler is described in the book by Jean Bodin Six livres de la République .
Around the year 1000 the Freising Manuscripts were written , representing the first document written in Slovenian and the first in Slavic dialect in Latin writing .
During the fourteenth century , most of the regions of Slovenia became the property of the Habsburgs whose lands would later form the Austro-Hungarian Empire , the Slovenians inhabited totally or mostly the provinces of Carniola , Gorizia and Gradisca , and parts of the provinces of Istria and Styria .
During the Napoleonic wars , the Illyrian
Provinces (dependent on France) were established with capital in the
Slovenian city of Ljubljana. After the collapse of the French Empire
and the end of the Napoleonic wars, they returned to the control of
Austria-Hungary. In 1848 , a strong program for a united Slovenia
emerged as part of the "Spring of the Nations" movement within
Towards the end of the nineteenth century and during the first decade of the twentieth century, one in six inhabitants emigrated from Slovenia to other parts of Europe, the USA, And Hispanic America, especially Paraguay. Industrial and mining centers attracted them mainly, such as Pittsburgh, Chicago, Butte in Montana, and Salt Lake / Salt Lake in Utah. The largest group of emigrants to the United States is located in Pueblo, Colorado, where picnics, folk dances of their ethnicity and samples of women's special clothing are still held every year.
With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918 , the Slovenes joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , which changed its name in 1929 to that of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . After the restoration of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II , Slovenia became part of the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia , officially declared on November 29 , 1945 . At that time its official name was the Socialist Republic of Slovenia .
The current Slovenia was formed on June 25 , 1991 due to its independence from Yugoslavia. To make its independence effective, Slovenia faced the federal armed forces of Yugoslavia in a brief armed conflict called the Ten-Day War , also commonly known as the "Slovenia War" ( Slovenian : Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna , "Slovenian War of Independence" ; or desetdnevna vojna, " War of the ten days ").
Slovenia joined NATO on 29 March as as 2004 and the European Union on 1 as maypole as 2004 . He adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2007.