Currency: Euro € (EUR)
Calling Code: 386
Slovenia , officially Republic of Slovenia is a
sovereign country in Central Europe , member of the European Union.
It borders Italy to the west; with the Adriatic Sea , to the
southwest; with Croatia to the south and east; with Hungary , to the
northeast; and with Austria to the north. It has a population of
2,080,908 inhabitants as of January 1, 2019. The capital and most
populous city is Ljubljana . About this sound
The present -day Slovenia was formed on 25 of June of 1991 to the independence from Yugoslavia , after a relatively short armed conflict called ten-day war (which was the first war of the dissolution of Yugoslavia), which opposed the army former Yugoslav federation. At that time, it was already the most developed country of that federation.
Culturally and historically, Slovenia gravitates towards Italy, Austria and Germany (Catholic and Protestant culture). Throughout history, Slovenia has always been part of empires, kingdoms, etc. Central Europe and has never been part of the political bodies that ruled most of the Balkans, for example. of the Eastern Roman Empire (Orthodox Church) and the Sultanate of Turkey (Islam).
In 2004 he joined the European Union. Slovenia joined the euro on January 1, 2007, and in the Schengen area, in 2004. Already in 1993 it had joined the Council of Europe and since July 2010 is part of the OECD .
The name Slovenija comes from the ethnonym "Slovene" -
the Proto-Slavic form of the ethnonym "Slavs", that is, it means
"Slovenian land". The etymology of the ethnonym "Slavs", according to a
number of linguists, remains unclear, although there are a number of
hypotheses in this regard.
The name of modern Slovenia comes from the Slovenian Committee for National Liberation (Slovenski narodnoosvobodilni svet), created in 1944 during the national liberation movement of Yugoslavia against the German occupation. The official name of the state in 1945-1946 was "Federal Slovenia" (Sloven. Federalna Slovenija), at that time - one of the countries that made up the SFRY. On February 20, 1946, "Federal Slovenia" was renamed the "People's Republic of Slovenia" (Sloven. Ljudska republika Slovenija), which, in turn, on April 9, 1963 was renamed the "Socialist Republic of Slovenia" (Slovene: Socialistična republika Slovenija). On March 8, 1990, Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the "Republic of Slovenia", and gained independence on June 25, 1991.
Prehistory and antiquity
In ancient times the current territory of Slovenia was encompassed by the culture of the ballot boxes , later, in the iron age the Hallstatt culture developed in the region .
In the second century BC the historical sources record the existence of the Kingdom of Noricum in the Eastern Alps. This kingdom maintained friendly relations with the Romans, to whom they sold iron. This iron was, in fact, the key of the Romans to produce effective weapons, necessary in their wars against the Celts. In the year 16 BC, Noricum is associated with the Roman Empire where it preserved its autonomy in the terms of the "ius gentium". This law allowed Noricum to keep its own social organization until the fall of the Roman Empire. However, Roman culture and Romanization spread in Noricum.
The most important cities of Roman times in the area were Celeia (now Celje ), Emona ( Ljubljana ), Nauportus (Vrhnika) and Poetovio ( Ptuj ). Slovenian territory was divided between the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Italy, Noricum and Pannonia.
In the fourth century, Noricum was divided into two Roman provinces, Noricum Ripense and Noricum Mediterraneum, the latter also called Interriore Noricum. While the first of these provinces was invaded by Germanic tribes at the Fall of the Roman Empire, the second was able to maintain its social structure and, after the occupation of the Ostrogoths , declared its own independence.
Some believe that the Slavic ancestors of the current Slovenes settled in this area around the 6th century. However, there are others who argue that they descend from the native villages of the Eastern Alps.
In the year 595 the appointment is recorded, by Lombard historian Paulus Diaconus , of the first stable Slavic and Slovenian state as "Sclaborum Province", which would later be known as Carantania . In the year 623 , the Slavs were united in an alliance under a king named Samo , also known in historical sources as the Vinedorum Mark , which included the territories of Carantania. In 658 , after Samo's death, the Slavic Alliance disintegrated, but Carantania survived and maintained its independence.
In 745 , Carantania , which until then was a pagan nation, was seriously threatened militarily by the Avavans of neighboring Panonia . That is why Duke Borut requested military help from the friendly Bavarians , who were already Christianized. The Bavarians belonged to the political dominance of the King of the Franks , who was the protector of Christianity in Europe. The king of the Franks gave permission to Bavaria to help the pagan Carantania, but only on the condition that the latter accept Christianity. Duke Borut accepted the condition and with the help of the Bavarians Carantania definitely defeated the Avars. This is how Duke Borut sent his son Gorazd and his nephew Hotimir to be educated in the Christian faith in Bavaria . In the decades following the defeat of the Avars the bishop of Salzburg , Saint Virgil , sent a series of Irish monks to Carantania, highlighting Saint Modestoas apostle of the carantanios. After the death of Saint Modesto there was a brief pagan restoration because the Treaty by which Carantania had agreed to assume Christianity was violated. Thus, the Bavarian army entered the country and suppressed the pagan government. Because of this among the pagan people grew distrust of Christianity.
Thanks to the task of Duke Domitian (Domicijan), the conversion to Christianity was total. Finally, at the time of Charlemagne , in 802 the Duke Domitian died; then he would be recognized saint. By 828 the Duchy of Carantania occupied the current territory of Austria and Slovenia.
Carantania joined the kingdom of the Franks with its own law ( Consuetudo Sclavorum ) and preserved the proclamation of his knez (prince) in Slovenian until 1414 on the Prince's Stone ( knezji kamen ). Until the year 1651 the ceremony of appointment of the lord took place in the Throne of the Duke ( vojvodski stol ) and until the year 1728 in the county mansion of Klagenfurt ( Celovec ). The coronation ritual of the Carinthian ruler is described in the book by Jean Bodin Six livres de la République .
Around the year 1000 the Freising Manuscripts were written , representing the first document written in Slovenian and the first in Slavic dialect in Latin writing .
During the fourteenth century , most of the regions of Slovenia became the property of the Habsburgs whose lands would later form the Austro-Hungarian Empire , the Slovenians inhabited totally or mostly the provinces of Carniola , Gorizia and Gradisca , and parts of the provinces of Istria and Styria .
During the Napoleonic wars , the Illyrian
Provinces (dependent on France) were established with capital in the
Slovenian city of Ljubljana. After the collapse of the French Empire
and the end of the Napoleonic wars, they returned to the control of
Austria-Hungary. In 1848 , a strong program for a united Slovenia
emerged as part of the "Spring of the Nations" movement within
Towards the end of the nineteenth century and during the first decade of the twentieth century, one in six inhabitants emigrated from Slovenia to other parts of Europe, the USA, And Hispanic America, especially Paraguay. Industrial and mining centers attracted them mainly, such as Pittsburgh, Chicago, Butte in Montana, and Salt Lake / Salt Lake in Utah. The largest group of emigrants to the United States is located in Pueblo, Colorado, where picnics, folk dances of their ethnicity and samples of women's special clothing are still held every year.
With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918 , the Slovenes joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , which changed its name in 1929 to that of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . After the restoration of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II , Slovenia became part of the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia , officially declared on November 29 , 1945 . At that time its official name was the Socialist Republic of Slovenia .
The current Slovenia was formed on June 25 , 1991 due to its independence from Yugoslavia. To make its independence effective, Slovenia faced the federal armed forces of Yugoslavia in a brief armed conflict called the Ten-Day War , also commonly known as the "Slovenia War" ( Slovenian : Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna , "Slovenian War of Independence" ; or desetdnevna vojna, " War of the ten days ").
Slovenia joined NATO on 29 March as as 2004 and the European Union on 1 as maypole as 2004 . He adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2007.
The country is divided into 212 communities (občina), 11 of which
have the status of a city, the capital is divided into district
communities (Četrtna skupnost).
The representative bodies of the city and the community are the city council (mestni svet), elected by the population; executive - zhupan (Župan).
The representative body of the district community is the council of the district community (Svet Četrtne skupnosti), elected by the population; the executive body is the chairman of the district community council (predsednik sveta).
The head of Slovenia is the president, who is elected every 5 years.
Executive power is vested in the President and the Cabinet of Ministers.
The latter is appointed by Parliament.
Parliament consists of two chambers: the National Assembly (državni zbor) and the Council of State (državni svet). 90 deputies are elected to the State Assembly: 88 of them - by proportional system, and 2 seats - by majoritarian system for the Slovenian-Italian and Hungarian communities. The Council of State performs the functions of the upper house. It has 40 deputies, elected for a five-year term, representing important economic, structural and national groups of society. Parliament is elected every 5 years. The main parties in the parliament are the Slovenian Democratic Party and the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia.
The constitutional review body is the Constitutional Court (Ustavno sodišče), the highest court is the Supreme Court (Vrhovno sodišče), the courts of appeal are the higher courts (Višje sodišče), the courts of first instance are the regional courts (Okrajno sodišče) and district courts (Okrožno sodišče) , the supreme body of prosecutorial supervision is the supreme state prosecutor's office (Vrhovno državno tožilstvo), the highest control body is the financial court (Računsko sodišče).
The number of personnel of the ground forces is 9,550 people. In combat strength are (as of 2002): - 7 infantry brigades, each with 3 infantry battalions: 1 fully equipped and 2 cadre battalions; - 1 special purpose brigade; - 1 airborne brigade; - 1 anti-tank battalion; - 2 separate mechanized battalions; - 1 engineering company; - 1 WMD defense unit; - 1 logistics regiment; - 1 anti-aircraft missile brigade.
Slovenia is located in the Alpine-Danube region of Central Europe.
There are four main geographical regions: in the northwest there are the
Alps (Yulian, Kamensko-Savinsky, Karavanke and Pohorie ridges, occupying
42% of the territory), in the northeast - the Pannonian (Middle Danube)
lowland (28%), in the south - the Dinaric Highlands (21%), including the
Karst karst plateau, which gave its name to this type of relief, in the
west - the Mediterranean coast (Adriatic Sea, 9%). The area is 20,273
km². The land area is 20,151 km². The area of the water space is 122
km². The highest point is the top of Mount Triglav (2864 m), the lowest
is the coast of the Adriatic Sea - 0 m.
Large rivers: Sava (221 km), Drava - right tributaries of the Danube. Mountain-glacial lakes (Bleysko, Bohinsko) and karst lakes (Cerknica, drying up, the largest in the country, maximum 26 km²). About a thousand karst caves (Postojnska Pit, Shkotsyansky caves). Many waterfalls, the largest is Chedtsa (130 m). The climate in most of the north is temperate continental, the average temperature in January is 0 ... −2 ° C, in July - 19 ... 21 ° C. Precipitation - 800-1200 mm, in the mountains - in places over 3000 mm / year. More than half of the territory is occupied by beech, oak, coniferous forests, in the mountains - alpine meadows, in the seaside - maquis, on the Karst plateau - steppe vegetation.
Slovenia has a developed economy. Of all Slavic and former communist
planned economies, Slovenia has the highest nominal GDP per capita and
second only to the Czech Republic in terms of PPP per capita GDP. The
minimum wage for 2022 is EUR 1,074.43 (gross) and EUR 749.73 (net). The
average salary as of December 2021 is 2064.12 euros (gross) and 1336.82
Advantages: stability; the manufacturing industry is competitive; strong export; the prospect of increased trade due to EU membership; competitive port in Koper.
Weaknesses: the economy is partially liberalized, which deters foreign investors; privatization (including the banking sector) is proceeding slowly.
The official currency of Slovenia is the euro (formerly the national currency of Slovenia was the tolar).
Slovenia became the first country that joined the EU in 2004 to launch a single European currency.
The average gross salary in Slovenia as of December 2021 was 2064.12 euros, the average net salary (after taxes and insurance premiums) was 1336.82 euros. The minimum wage in 2022 was 1,074.43 euros.
In June 2005, the Government of the Republic of Slovenia adopted the Slovenian Development Strategy, which includes:
exceeding the average level of economic development of the EU, as well as increasing employment in line with the goals of the Lisbon Strategy in the next ten years;
improving the quality of life and well-being of every person, as measured by indicators of human development, health, social risks and social cohesion;
ensuring the principle of sustainability as the main criterion of quality in all areas of development, including the goal of sustainable population growth;
development of the image of the country in the world through the development of its characteristic pattern, cultural identity and active participation in international processes.
The large oil company Petrol is completely state-owned and, in accordance with a special government decision, cannot be privatized.
In the energy sector of Slovenia there is one nuclear power plant - NPP "Krsko".
The Bank of Slovenia is the central issuing and control body. There is the Association of Banks, which includes about 30 commercial banks in Slovenia.
As of January 1, 2013, 2,058,821 inhabitants are registered in
Slovenia. Slovenia ranks 145th in the world in terms of population. The
average age of the population is 41.7 years (men - 40, women - 43).
The total fertility rate is 1.60 births per woman.
Total life expectancy: men - 78.4 years; women - 83.9 years (2018).
Ethnic composition of the total population according to the 2002 census (1,964,036 people):
Slovenians - 1,631,363 (83.1%)
Serbs - 38,964 (2.0%)
Croats - 35,642 (1.8%)
Bosniaks - 21,542 (1.1%)
Hungarians - 6,243 (0.3%)
Albanians - 6,186 (0.3%)
Macedonians - 3,972 (0.2%)
Montenegrins - 2,667 (0.1%)
Italians - 2,258 (0.1%)
Nationality unknown - 174,913 (8.9%)
The average population density is 101.66 people per km². Approximately half of the inhabitants live in cities, the rest in rural areas.
The official language is Slovenian. Italian has the status of an official language in some localities of the municipalities of Isola, Koper and Piran, Hungarian in five communities of Prekmurje (Dobrovnik, Lendava, Moravske Toplice, Hodos and Šalovci). Also official, although of a lower status, is the gypsy language.
According to the 2002 census, Catholics make up 57.8% of the population, Muslims - 2.4%, Orthodox - 2.3%, Protestants - 0.8% (Union of Baptist Churches of Slovenia, Union of Pentecostal Churches of Slovenia, Adventists).
Slovene is a South Slavic language written in the Latin alphabet. It
has common roots with the Croatian and Serbian languages, but differs
significantly from them. Slovene is one of the few Slavic languages
that has retained the dual number and supine. Currently, 49 dialects
of the Slovenian language have been preserved.
In royal Yugoslavia, Slovenia was distinguished by almost universal literacy of the population. According to the 1921 census, in the Slovenian Drava Banovina of Yugoslavia, only 8.9% of the population was illiterate. In the same 1921, in Belgrade, the proportion of illiterates was 14.1% of the population, and in Yugoslavia as a whole - 51.5%.
Slovenia's most famous poet is Franz Prešern (1800–1849), whose lyrical poems set new standards for Slovenian literature and helped to awaken national consciousness. Since the Second World War, many Slovenian folklore traditions have been lost, but there are attempts to revive the national culture, for example, the Trutamor Slovenika trio performs Slovenian folk music in the early 90s. The international bayan competition was won by Alessandra Minaccia, who performed Slovenian tunes. In the 1970s industrial musical style came to the country, which by the beginning of the 1980s. covered the whole of Slovenia (a vivid example is the Laibach group from Ljubljana, Laibach is the German version of the name of the Slovenian capital). Postmodernism in painting and sculpture has been promoted since the 1980s. the Neue Slowenische Kunst group and five unknown artists working under the pseudonym IRWIN. Many significant buildings and squares in Slovenia were designed by the architect Jože Plečnik (1872–1957).
In 1919, the first university, Ljubljana, was opened. After the universities were founded in Maribor (1978), Koper (2001) and Nova Gorica (2006).
According to data published by MSN, the best Slovenian dish is Kranjska sausage. At the official level, it is recognized as a "masterpiece of national importance." Traditionally, the use of fish is widespread. Many dishes are borrowed from neighboring countries: From Austria - curl (strudel) and Danube zrezek (Viennese schnitzel). Gnocchi (potato dumplings), rijota and ravioli-like gircroft are local Italian dishes. Golash and paprikash (stewed chicken or beef) were borrowed from Hungarian cuisine. Layered pie with meat or cheese "burek" (a word of Turkish origin), meat and apple pie are also common. There are many types of dumplings, of which struukli (cheese dumplings) are the most popular. It is better to try traditional dishes in gostilna - local restaurants. An example of a traditional Slovenian dish is "goveja juha" (goveja juha, a soup made from rich beef broth with long noodles (rezanci - rezanci), sometimes with the addition of parmesan cheese, as well as "gobova juha" (gobova juha, soup with porcini mushrooms). Slovenia produces good white and red wine, as well as strong drinks such as šnops, brandy called zhganje (žganje), and popular beer brands in Slovenia - "Laško" (Lashko), "Union" .
The Law on Public Holidays and Holidays in the Republic of Slovenia
provides for the following holidays and public holidays:
January 1 and 2 - New Year
February 8 - Prešeren Day, a cultural holiday in Slovenia
April 1 and 2 - Sunday and Monday of Easter (dates for 2018)
April 27 - Day of the uprising against the occupation
May 1 and 2 - Labor Day
June 25 - National Day
August 15 - Assumption of the Virgin
October 31 - Reformation Day
November 1 - All Souls' Day
December 25 - Christmas
December 26 - Independence Day