Slovenia , officially Republic of Slovenia is a
sovereign country in Central Europe , member of the European Union.
It borders Italy to the west; with the Adriatic Sea , to the
southwest; with Croatia to the south and east; with Hungary , to the
northeast; and with Austria to the north. It has a population of
2,080,908 inhabitants as of January 1, 2019. The capital and most
populous city is Ljubljana . About this sound
-day Slovenia was formed on 25 of June of 1991 to the independence
from Yugoslavia , after a relatively short armed conflict called
ten-day war (which was the first war of the dissolution of
Yugoslavia), which opposed the army former Yugoslav federation. At
that time, it was already the most developed country of that
Culturally and historically, Slovenia gravitates
towards Italy, Austria and Germany (Catholic and Protestant
culture). Throughout history, Slovenia has always been part of
empires, kingdoms, etc. Central Europe and has never been part of
the political bodies that ruled most of the Balkans, for example. of
the Eastern Roman Empire (Orthodox Church) and the Sultanate of
In 2004 he joined the European Union.
Slovenia joined the euro on January 1, 2007, and in the Schengen
area, in 2004. Already in 1993 it had joined the Council of Europe
and since July 2010 is part of the OECD .
Slovenian Vilenica Cave is a
magnificent underground sytem that is opened to the public
visits since it was discovered in 1633.
Prehistory and antiquity In ancient times the
current territory of Slovenia was encompassed by the culture of the
ballot boxes , later, in the iron age the Hallstatt culture
developed in the region .
In the second century BC the
historical sources record the existence of the Kingdom of Noricum in
the Eastern Alps. This kingdom maintained friendly relations with
the Romans, to whom they sold iron. This iron was, in fact, the key
of the Romans to produce effective weapons, necessary in their wars
against the Celts. In the year 16 BC, Noricum is associated with the
Roman Empire where it preserved its autonomy in the terms of the
"ius gentium". This law allowed Noricum to keep its own social
organization until the fall of the Roman Empire. However, Roman
culture and Romanization spread in Noricum.
important cities of Roman times in the area were Celeia (now Celje
), Emona ( Ljubljana ), Nauportus (Vrhnika) and Poetovio ( Ptuj ).
Slovenian territory was divided between the Roman provinces of
Dalmatia, Italy, Noricum and Pannonia.
In the fourth century,
Noricum was divided into two Roman provinces, Noricum Ripense and
Noricum Mediterraneum, the latter also called Interriore Noricum.
While the first of these provinces was invaded by Germanic tribes at
the Fall of the Roman Empire, the second was able to maintain its
social structure and, after the occupation of the Ostrogoths ,
declared its own independence.
Some believe that the Slavic
ancestors of the current Slovenes settled in this area around the
6th century. However, there are others who argue that they descend
from the native villages of the Eastern Alps.
Modern Age In the year 595 the appointment is recorded, by
Lombard historian Paulus Diaconus , of the first stable Slavic and
Slovenian state as "Sclaborum Province", which would later be known
as Carantania . In the year 623 , the Slavs were united in an
alliance under a king named Samo , also known in historical sources
as the Vinedorum Mark , which included the territories of
Carantania. In 658 , after Samo's death, the Slavic Alliance
disintegrated, but Carantania survived and maintained its
In 745 , Carantania , which until then was a
pagan nation, was seriously threatened militarily by the Avavans of
neighboring Panonia . That is why Duke Borut requested military help
from the friendly Bavarians , who were already Christianized. The
Bavarians belonged to the political dominance of the King of the
Franks , who was the protector of Christianity in Europe. The king
of the Franks gave permission to Bavaria to help the pagan
Carantania, but only on the condition that the latter accept
Christianity. Duke Borut accepted the condition and with the help of
the Bavarians Carantania definitely defeated the Avars. This is how
Duke Borut sent his son Gorazd and his nephew Hotimir to be educated
in the Christian faith in Bavaria . In the decades following the
defeat of the Avars the bishop of Salzburg , Saint Virgil , sent a
series of Irish monks to Carantania, highlighting Saint Modestoas
apostle of the carantanios. After the death of Saint Modesto there
was a brief pagan restoration because the Treaty by which Carantania
had agreed to assume Christianity was violated. Thus, the Bavarian
army entered the country and suppressed the pagan government.
Because of this among the pagan people grew distrust of
Thanks to the task of Duke Domitian
(Domicijan), the conversion to Christianity was total. Finally, at
the time of Charlemagne , in 802 the Duke Domitian died; then he
would be recognized saint. By 828 the Duchy of Carantania occupied
the current territory of Austria and Slovenia.
joined the kingdom of the Franks with its own law ( Consuetudo
Sclavorum ) and preserved the proclamation of his knez (prince) in
Slovenian until 1414 on the Prince's Stone ( knezji kamen ). Until
the year 1651 the ceremony of appointment of the lord took place in
the Throne of the Duke ( vojvodski stol ) and until the year 1728 in
the county mansion of Klagenfurt ( Celovec ). The coronation ritual
of the Carinthian ruler is described in the book by Jean Bodin Six
livres de la République .
Around the year 1000 the Freising
Manuscripts were written , representing the first document written
in Slovenian and the first in Slavic dialect in Latin writing .
During the fourteenth century , most of the regions of Slovenia
became the property of the Habsburgs whose lands would later form
the Austro-Hungarian Empire , the Slovenians inhabited totally or
mostly the provinces of Carniola , Gorizia and Gradisca , and parts
of the provinces of Istria and Styria .
During the Napoleonic wars , the Illyrian
Provinces (dependent on France) were established with capital in the
Slovenian city of Ljubljana. After the collapse of the French Empire
and the end of the Napoleonic wars, they returned to the control of
Austria-Hungary. In 1848 , a strong program for a united Slovenia
emerged as part of the "Spring of the Nations" movement within
Towards the end of the nineteenth century
and during the first decade of the twentieth century, one in six
inhabitants emigrated from Slovenia to other parts of Europe, the
USA, And Hispanic America, especially Paraguay. Industrial and
mining centers attracted them mainly, such as Pittsburgh, Chicago,
Butte in Montana, and Salt Lake / Salt Lake in Utah. The largest
group of emigrants to the United States is located in Pueblo,
Colorado, where picnics, folk dances of their ethnicity and samples
of women's special clothing are still held every year.
the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918 , the Slovenes
joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , which changed
its name in 1929 to that of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . After the
restoration of Yugoslavia at the end of World War II , Slovenia
became part of the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia ,
officially declared on November 29 , 1945 . At that time its
official name was the Socialist Republic of Slovenia .
current Slovenia was formed on June 25 , 1991 due to its
independence from Yugoslavia. To make its independence effective,
Slovenia faced the federal armed forces of Yugoslavia in a brief
armed conflict called the Ten-Day War , also commonly known as the
"Slovenia War" ( Slovenian : Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna ,
"Slovenian War of Independence" ; or desetdnevna vojna, " War of the
ten days ").
Slovenia joined NATO on 29 March as as 2004 and
the European Union on 1 as maypole as 2004 . He adopted the euro as
its official currency on 1 January 2007.